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Development and Advancement of Technology

Development and Advancement of Technology

Current technological developments have shown many extraordinary advances. Many things in the life sector have used the existence of technology itself. Its presence has had a significant impact on human life in various aspects and dimensions. Likewise, communication technology is hardware equipment in an organizational structure that contains social value that allows individuals to collect, process and exchange information (according to Rogers, 1986). This is a situation where technology is able to change something that cannot be done into reality. For example, if in the past people could not talk to other people who were in distant places, then after the telephone people were able to talk without limits and time distance.

From here, initially with the discovery of various simple devices, starting from telephones, which were analog based, they continued to progress and develop until various other

electronic devices emerged. Until finally these technologies integrate with each other. Existing communication technology is an answer to developments over time. This happens because the more advanced human civilization develops, the technology will continue to develop to align the pattern of human civilization itself.

1. Understanding Communication Technology and Information Technology

According to Rogers, 1986 technology is hardware equipment in an organizational structure that contains social value that allows individuals to collect, process and exchange information (quoted from lecture material on the Development of Communication Technology, Jamroji S.Sos: p. 1). It can also be said that communication technology is a new discovery in aspects of life where every individual can use, access and provide all kinds of information to other people universally. Meanwhile, according to Ely, 1982, what is meant by Information Technology includes communication systems such as direct broadcast satellites, two-way interactive cables, low-power broadcasting), computers (including personal computers and new handheld computers), and television (including video disks and video tape cassettes), (quoted from Communication Technology in Perspective of its Background & Development, Zulkarimein Nasution. 1989: p. 5). Communication technology and information technology itself are actually interrelated. However, there are still sides that differentiate between the two.

2. Development of Communication Technology

Currently, the need for technology, both information technology and telecommunications, is very high, from the lower middle class to the upper middle class. All individuals really need technology to accelerate development or improve development, both individual and group development. The development of technology that is currently very fast is communication technology, which presents a wide choice of forms of technology and their sophistication.

The development of communication itself is actually in line with the life and existence of humans themselves. There are four major defining points in the history of human communication. According to Nordenstreng and Varis (1973) are:

The acquisition (acquisition) of language occurs at the same time as human birth.
development of the art of writing side by side with communication based on speech.
reproduction of written words (written words) using a printer, making it possible to realize true mass communication.
the emergence of electronic communications, starting from the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, to satellites.
(quoted from Communication Technology in Perspective of its Background & Development, Zulkarimein Nasution. 1989: p. 15). Meanwhile, according to Alvin Toffler, there are three civilizations in the development of technology itself, namely, the agricultural era, the industrial age and finally the information age (quoted from Communication Technology in its Background & Development Perspective, Zulkarimein Nasution. 1989: p. 2).

Previously, just looking back, communication technology itself has actually emerged since the Pre-Historic Era. Where at that time people were able to use this form of communication. However, the form is still very simple. For example, forms are limited to body movement, images are language, sounds are made from bones and so on. However, despite this, it was considered an appropriate form of communication at that time.

Subsequent developments have progressed a step further, for example the form of communication in pictographs used by the Sumerians, hieroglyphs by the Ancient Egyptians. At that time, these two types of letters were also often used when the king gave regulations such as regulations for his people which were installed in the middle of the city where the shape was like a monument, known as UU in the form of a memorial.

Progress in communication technology was felt to be even better after the Chinese discovered paper made from papyrus leaf fibers. This development is still used today and has great benefits for humanity. For example, paper is used to print newspapers, magazines, books and so on.

Furthermore, as human knowledge develops, communication technology becomes increasingly better. Starting with the discovery of the steam engine by James Watt, which was the opening of the Industrial Revolution, it had various impacts that triggered the emergence of other technologies. A truly extraordinary step, where the discovery of one thing causes the emergence of various other things. The invention of the telephone, which was discovered in 1876, was a development of communication technology using the application of analog concepts. This continued until around the 1960s. And after that it just leads to digital concepts. Then the next development was the discovery of fax, which is the use of communication by providing data that can be passed via telephone. Likewise with the development of computers. The first computer introduced was the ENIAC II. Used in 1946, after the second world war. This computer is an electronic circuit of tube lights that weighs 20 tons

With the existence of computers, this was the beginning of communication technology in a digital context which then developed rapidly. The digital era itself occurred after satellites were discovered and activated. The various kinds of discoveries that have occurred have more or less changed the pattern of life in society itself.

3. Development of Communication Technology

Indonesia pernah menggunakan istilah telematika (telematics) untuk arti yang kurang lebih sama dengan TIK yang kita kenal saat ini. Encarta Dictionary mendeskripsikan telematics sebagai telecommunication + informatics (telekomunikasi + informatika) meskipun sebelumnya kata itu bermakna science of data transmission. Pengolahan informasi dan pendistribusiannya melalui jaringan telekomunikasi membuka banyak peluang untuk dimanfaatkan di berbagai bidang kehidupan manusia, termasuk salah satunya bidang pendidikan. Ide untuk menggunakan mesin-belajar, membuat simulasi proses-proses yang rumit, animasi proses-proses yang sulit dideskripsikan sangat menarik minat praktisi pembelajaran. Tambahan lagi, kemungkinan untuk melayani pembelajaran yang tak terkendala waktu dan tempat juga dapat difasilitasi oleh TIK. Sejalan dengan itu mulailah bermunculan berbagai jargon berawalan e, mulai dari e-book, e-learning, e-laboratory, e-education, e-library, dan sebagainya. Awalan e bermakna electronics yang secara implisit dimaknai berdasar teknologi elektronika digital. Pemanfaatan TIK dalam pembelajaran di Indonesia telah memiliki sejarah yang cukup panjang. Inisiatif menyelenggarakan siaran radio pendidikan dan televisi pendidikan merupakan upaya melakukan penyebaran informasi ke satuan-satuan pendidikan yang tersebar di seluruh nusantara. Hal ini adalah wujud dari kesadaran untuk mengoptimalkan pendayagunaan teknologi dalam membantu proses pembelajaran masyarakat. Kelemahan utama siaran radio maupun televisi pendidikan adalah tidak adanya feedback yang seketika. Siaran bersifat searah yaitu dari narasumber atau fasilitator kepada pembelajar. Introduksi komputer dengan kemampuannya mengolah dan menyajikan tayangan multimedia (teks, grafis, gambar, suara, dan gambar bergerak) memberikan peluang baru untuk mengatasi kelemahan yang tidak dimiliki siaran radio dan televisi. Bila televisi hanya mampu memberikan informasi searah (terlebih jika materi tayangannya adalah materi hasil rekaman), pembelajaran berbasis teknologi internet memberikan peluang berinteraksi baik secara sinkron (real time) maupun asinkron (delayed). Pembelajaran berbasis Internet memungkinkan terjadinya pembelajaran secara sinkron dengan keunggulan utama bahwa pembelajar maupun fasilitator tidak harus berada di satu tempat yang sama. Pemanfaatan teknologi video conference yang dijalankan dengan menggunakan teknologi Internet memungkinkan pembelajar berada di mana saja sepanjang terhubung ke jaringan komputer. Selain aplikasi unggulan seperti itu, beberapa peluang lain yang lebih sederhana dan lebih murah juga dapat dikembangkan sejalan dengan kemajuan TIK saat ini.

Actually, technology has existed since ancient times, namely ancient Roman times. Technological developments have developed drastically and continue to evolve until now. To create objects, techniques that can help humans do things more efficiently and quickly. One of them is like the one in Indonesia, namely the esemka car phenomenon created by several schools in Solo. Has created a national car innovation for Indonesia. Apart from that, there are also people in Sidoarjo who produce ships for fishing needs. In its simplest form, technological developments result from the development of old ways or the discovery of new methods in completing traditional tasks such as farming, making clothes, or building houses.

There are three basic classifications of technological development, namely:

  • Neutral technological development (English: neutral technological progress). Occurs when a higher level of expenditure (output) is achieved with the same quantity and combination of income (input) factors.
  • The development of labor-saving technology (English: labor-saving technological progress). Technological developments that have occurred since the late nineteenth century have been marked by the rapid rise of labor-saving technologies for producing everything from nuts to bicycles to bridges.
  • Development of capital-saving technology (English: capital-saving technological progress). A relatively rare phenomenon. This is mainly because almost all technological and scientific research in the world is carried out in developed countries, which is aimed at saving labor, not capital.

Experience in various developing countries shows that excessive direct interference, especially in the form of government regulations that are too strict, in foreign technology markets actually hinders the flow of foreign technology to developing countries.

Technological developments are very important for human life today. Because technology is one of the supports for human development. In many parts of society, technology has helped improve the economy, food, computers, and much more.

On the other hand, a policy of ‘open doors for a long time’ to the flow of foreign technology, especially in the form of foreign investment (PMA), actually hinders greater independence in the process of developing the technological capabilities of developing countries because of too great dependence on foreign investors. because they are the ones who carry out all the difficult and complicated technological efforts.

This is proof that technology has become a necessity and is prevalent in every sector of human life. Especially after the invention of computers and laptops, now almost all human work is related to computers or laptops. So it is appropriate that computers are the most recent invention and the most influential on human life.

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